Implantation bleeding is the negligible quantity of bleeding that happens when the zygote embeds itself into the endometrial lining. This occurs because the uterus lining consists of a mesh of tiny capillaries which are ruptured as the zygote first attaches itself, and then burrows deep inside as the blastocyst so as to connect to the circulatory system of the mother.
The bleeding takes place normally from nine to ten days from the day of ovulation. In other words, it occurs after five days of the fertilization of the ovum by the sperm in the fallopian tubes. The length of time taken can be due to the fact that the miniscule size of the zygote needs to give it some time to travel from the fallopian tubes to the uterus. It could also be due to the fact that the blood needs to travel from the uterus lining to the vaginal opening.
The shade of color of implantation bleeding depends on the latter factor. If the amount of bleeding was negligible, the bleeding may show up as dark brownish stains on the undergarment. This will show that it has been a while since the implantation occurred, and a sizeable amount of time was taken for the drops of blood to flow out. In other cases, where the quantity of bleeding is larger, the color of implantation bleeding might be pink or red, which indicates an active site of implantation where the implantation has just occurred.
However, even in the latter cases, the bleeding will be in the form of a smear or stain or discharge, lacking the flowing quality that menstrual bleeding possesses. If the quantity of blood shed acquires a flowing quality, it is usually taken as a negative sign for the pregnancy and requires immediate medical attention.
Implantation bleeding is a phenomenon which is completely natural, although it is termed as an exception by many doctors, rather than a general occurrence. The amount of blood that is shed is too insignificant to affect the developing embryo. Light cramping in the abdominal area is also quite a natural occurrence. The abdomen also feels unnaturally bloated. There are also no clots present in the bleeding caused by implantation, unlike bleeding caused by other reasons. The duration of the bleeding can be for a few minutes to a day or two.
While some women mistake this phenomenon for miscarriage, others mistake for an irregular pattern of the menstrual cycle, bleeding due to stress, or random irregular discharge from the vagina due to friction or otherwise. This can be a shock for women who have been adopting birth control measures, and are signals that their birth control had been a fail.
This can lead to a miscalculation of the gestational age of the embryo, and the embryo may be declared premature upon arrival. The prematurity is usually declared to be of three or four weeks. The victim should do a careful calculation about her menstrual cycle while deciding upon the gestational age, and also be wary and judge the color of implantation bleeding accordingly. This will save the patient from future concern and precautions.